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The Blood Lipid Regulation Study of Pine Nut Oil(2010/12/31 6:03:24)

Pine nut oil contains a variety of physiologically active substances, such as vitamin A, vitamin E and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, sterols, polysaccharides, flavonoids, etc., are used for edible or functional foods. In this experiment, Wistar aged rats are the research object, the high-fat animal model is established while the experiment of blood lipids regulation are carried out.The impact on serum TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, BG and weight change in aged rats are observed to determine the lipid regulation of pine nut oil.

1 Materials and methods
1.1 Pine nut oil, cholesterol, pig bile salt, AR, lard.
1.2 Animals: health, clean 60 22-month-old Wistar rats(half male,half female).
1.3 Reagents: glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol assay kit.
1.4 Main instruments: HITACHI 7020 automatic biochemical analyzer, 752 spectrophotometer.
1.5 Experimental Methods: 22 month-old Wistar rats are randomly divided into 5 groups(half male,half female).One blank control group and one high fat control
group are set up, blank control group feeds basic diet, high fat control group feeds high fat diet (90% of the basic diet, 1% cholesterol, 8.8% lard, 0.2% pig bile salt); setup another 3 groups for pine nut oil intake, the projected pine nut oil doses of each treatment group are 2.0g/kg.d, 4.0g/kg.d and 8.0g/kg.d according to recommended intake of fat at the elderly (0.8g/kg.d), the 3 groups are continuously fed for 8 weeks and free access to water. The anal blood is taken, centrifuged and serum obtained at the 5th week.lipid (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, BG) and blood glucose (TG) levels are determined according to the kit instruction, the average weight of each group is measured once a week. Experimental data is expressed as average ± standard deviation, statistics are analysed with spss 11.0 (single factor, LSD method).

2 Result
2.1 The impact of pine nut oil on (male) rat blood glucose

Table 1      The impact of pine nut oil on (male) rat blood glucose

blank control group       high fat control group   2.0g/kg.d     4.0g/kg.d      8.0g/kg.d
4.32±1.33                       5.21±1.24                    4.73±1.50    4.32±0.64     5.89±1.33a

Note: a refers to the comparison with the middle dose group, a﹤0.05.

Table 1 shows that the BG content of low dose group and middle dose group tends to decrease compared with the high fat control group, the middle dose group is below the level of the blank control group, but the high dose group increases,the difference is not significant compared with the high-fat control group (P>0.05), but the difference compared with the middle dose group is significantly (P﹤0.05).

2.2 The impact of pine nut oil on (female) rat blood glucose

Table 2      The impact of pine nut oil on (female) rat blood glucose

dosage group                      TC                TG                HDL-C             LDL-C
blank control group      1.73±0.18       0.81±0.23      0.86±0.05        0.40±0.10
high fat control group   2.54±0.70a     0.91±0.44      0.76±0.17        0.52±0.15
2.0g/kg.d                      2.73±0.59aa   0.66±0.10      0.77±0.18        0.48±0.17
4.0g/kg.d                      2.52±0.48a     0.62±0.07b     0.75±0.20        0.68±0.29a
8.0g/kg.d                      2.78±0.39aa   0.74±0.17       0.67±0.23        0.78±0.13aa/b
Note: a refers to the comparison with the blank control group, a<0.05,aa﹤0.01; b refers to the comparison with high fat control group, b<0.05.

Table 2 shows the level of serum TG, TC, LDL-C of the high fat control group  is higher than the control group, and the HDL-C level is lower than normal, but only the difference in TC is statistically significant (P<0.05). Compared with the high fat control group, the serum TC, HDL-C levels of pine nut oil dosage groups are not significantly different, while the middle dose group is significantly lowered in TG level (P<0.05); LDL-C shows increasing trend, especially in the high-dose group(P<0.05).

2.3 The impact of pine nut oil on the weight of rats(male), see table 3

table 3   The impact of pine nut oil on the weight of rats(male)

dose group            animal number         average body weight(g)          weight gain(g)
                                               before experiment    after experiment
blank control group        6            526.67                          546.00            19.33
high fat control group    6            495.00                           540.00            45.00
2.0g/kg.d                       6            505.00                           546.67            41.67
4.0g/kg.d                       6            508.33                           523.33            15.00a
8.0g/kg.d                       6            511.67                           521.67            10.00aa
Note: a refers to the comparison to high fat control group,a<0.05,aa<0.01.

Table 3 shows the high fat control group increased more than the blank control group in weight gain;the weight gain of middle dosage group and high dosage group are obviously lower than the high fat control group; there is not significant difference between the low dosage control group and high fat control group.

2.4
The impact of pine nut oil on rat body weight, see table 4

table 4               the impact of pine nut oil on female rat body weight

dose group            animal number         average body weight(g)          weight gain(g)
                                                 before experiment    after experiment
blank control group          6            270.00                          291.67            21.67
high fat control group      6            296.00                           330.00            33.33
2.0g/kg.d                         6            295.00                           324.00            29.00
4.0g/kg.d                         6            296.67                           312.00            15.33a
8.0g/kg.d                         6            298.33                           306.00            7.67aa
Note: a refers to the comparison with high fat control group,a<0.05,aa<0.01.

Table 4 shows, the high fat group is significantly greater than blank control group in weight gain; the middle dose group and high dose group are significantly lower than high fat control group and lower than the blank control group.Thus, the weight gain in female rats in each group are relatively flat, and the weight increase in female rats is smaller than male rats.

3. Conclusion and Discussion

Hyperlipidemia is an factor in coronary artery disease, the levels of serum TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C are the main indicators of lipid metabolism in the body. Lowering serum TG and TC level is an important measure for prevention of atherosclerosis. With experimental data obtained: the weight gain can be controlled in aged rats by feeding high dosage pine nut oil. Pine nut oil contains polyunsaturated fatty acids up to 90%,the serum TG level is significantly lowered in high blood lipid rats(P<0.05) but the level of serum TC is not significantly improved(P>0.05); The group of pine nut oil dosage groups have no obvious difference in serum HDL-C compared with the high fat control group, blood sugar decreases and no significant difference between the groups (P>0.05), while the high dose group increased a lot in blood glucose compared with the middle dose group(P<0.05), but 8.0g/kg.d dose group has higher value of LDL-C compared with the high fat group (P<0.05).

     
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