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Components To Absorb UV Rays in Seabuckthorn Oils(2010/12/31 7:00:08)

The sun's rays in the wavelength between 200nm and 400nm are called ultraviolet rays. The rays between 280nm-400nm cause acute skin damage, melanism, aging, and cancer. With growing thinning of the ozone layer, skin care is more and more important in Summer. In this experiment, the active ingredients, content and UV rays absorption of seabuckthorn oils are studied to find out suitable medium and long-wave UV rays absorbers.

1. The wavelength of UV rays to damage skin and skin resistance

Ultraviolet rays are divided into three wave ranges according to the penetration and damage ability on the skin:
1) 200nm-280nm is the short wave, which penetrate into the stratum corneum, most of them are rejected by the atmosphere, will not damage the skin;
2) 280nm-320nm is the medium wave, which shoot through the epidermis to cause skin red spots, even polymorphic light eruption;
3) 320nm-400nm is the long wave , which reach the dermis to cause no skin red spots, but will make skin blackening, wrinkling, aging and even cancer.

2. The UV rays absorption wavelength of Seabuckthorn oil components

The oils used in this study include seabuckthorn seed oil, seabuckthorn pomace oil, sea buckthorn pulp oil, all of them contain vitamin E, vitamin A, vitamin A source and flavonoids (see Table 1)

               Table 1 The components of seabuckthorn oils to absorbe UV rays   mg/100g

Oil Name                Vitamin E        Vitamin A      Vitamin A source           Flavonoids
                                                                  Beta-carotene      Carotenoids                
SBT Seed Oil          280-380                4.3        4845            30-250             688
SBT Pomace Oil      436-688                40         187             916-2392          1400-2120
SBT Pulp Oil           152-220                 2.0        67.2            566-1541          365

2.1 The UV rays absorption wavelength of vitamin E,vitamin A and vitamin A source

Table 1 shows that the 3 seabuckthorn oils contain VE, VA and VA source, in terms of vitamin E content,pomace oil ranks first, seed oil the second, followed by pulp oil; in terms of vitamin A and vitamin A source , seed oil ranks the first, pomace oil the second, pulp oil the third; vitamin A of the 3 sea buckthorn oils is far less than the Vitamin A source. VE, VA, and VA sources are fat-soluble ingredients, which are absorbed by skin capillary hemangioma with seabuckthorn oil, the vitamin A source turns into vitamin A, monomolecular beta carotene is decomposed into dimolecular vitamin A, and monomolecular alpha, gamma-carotene and part of carotenoids, such as beta carotene zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, convert to monomolecular vitamin A. Therefore, there are different forms of vitamin A absorbed and converted through the skin, as shown in Table 2, they transform from each other, and maintain the dynamic balance, all the UV rays absorption wavelength of various forms of VA are listed in the Table 2. In addition, The UV rays absorption wavelength of vitamin E 284nm, absorption index 41.0-45.0 are also listed in Table 2.

Table 2   The UV rays absorption wavelength of vitamin E and different vitamin A

name                                                                   ethanol
                                                     absorption Peak        absorption index
vitamin E                                                    284             41.0-45.0
neovitamin Ac         alcohol                         311             907.8        
                               ester                            310.5           858.8
neovitamin Ab         alcohol                         319             1376
                               ester                            320             972.7
isovitamin Aa          alcohol                          323             1477
                               ester                            323             1199
isovitamin Ab          alcohol                          324             1379
                               ester                             324             806.5
VA all-trans            alcohol                            325             1832
                              ester                               325.5           1584
neovitamin Aa        alcohol                            328             1686
                              ester                               328             1431

Vitamin E absorption peaks in the left of the medium wave band, which shows strong absorption in the medium wave, weak absorption occurs in the short wave with wide wave band; neovitamin Ac peaks in the right side of the absorption band, which shows strong absorption in the medium band,a weak absorption occurs in the long wavelength with a narrow wave band; neovitamin Ac peaks exactly in the right end of the medium band,the absorption is almost the same in the medium and long wavelength; isovitamin Aa, isovitamin Ab, vitamin A all-trans and neovitamin Aa peak near the left end of long wavelength ,which shows strong absorption in the long band, weak absorption occurs in the medium band with wide band. The absorption coefficients show that the strong absorption of vitamin E,vitamin A and vitamin A transformed of seabuckthorn oil happens in the long wavelength and weak absorption in the medium band.
Based on the content of vitamin E, vitamin A and vitamin A source of seabuckthorn oils, the absorption of sea buckthorn seed oil per unit in the medium band
ranks first followed by pomace oil, pulp oil the third.

2.2 The UV rays absorption wavelength of flavonoids

Table 1 shows that, In terms of the content of f flavonoids, seabuckthorn pomace oil ranks first, followed by seed oil, pulp oil the third.

Table 3 The UV rays absorption wavelengths and drift values of flavonoids

No. Compound Name                              substituent group                   Dift Value
                                                                R1           R2            R3          nm    nm
1    2,4-dihydroxy chalcone-4-glucoside   H          O-glucose   H          320   300
2    myricetin                                           OH         OH              OH        374   300
3    kaempferol                                        OH         OH              H          371   299
4    isorhamnetin                                     OH         OH              OMe      370   302
5    isorhamnetin-7-rhamnosyl glycosides OH         O-rhamnose  OMe  367   294
6    isorhamnetin-3-glucoside                   O-glucose OH           OH        358   302
7    isorhamnetin-3-glucose-7-rhamnose glycoside O-glucose   O-rhamnose   OMe        359   303
8    isorhamnetin-3-rhamnose, galactose glycosides O-rhamnogalactoside   OH         OMe        359   302
9    isorhamnetin-3-glycosides rutin         O-rue sugar OH         OMe      359   303
10  isorhamnetin-3-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranoside O-glucopyranose OH         OMe        359   295
11  isorhamnetin-3-arab glucoside          O-arab glucose  OH         OMe 359   301
12  isorhamnetin-3-rhamnose glucoside  O-rhamnose glucose  OH   OH  360   301
13  isorhamnetin-3-glucoside                   O-glucose   OH         OMe        372
14  isorhamnetin-3-rhamnosyl glycosides O-rhamnose OH       OMe        372
15  isorhamnetin-3-vetch glycosides        O-vicianose   OH        OMe        357
16  isorhamnetin-3-sophorose-7-rhamnose glycoside O-sophorose O-rhamnose   OMe        357
17  four quercetin glycosides                                         OH         OMe        345
18  quercetin                                            OH              OH              OH         357
19  quercetin-7-rhamnosyl glycosides      OH             O-rhamnose    OH     357
20  quercetin-3-glucoside                         O-glucose       OH          OH         357
21  quercetin-3-rhamnosyl glycosides      O-rhamnose       OH         OH      357
22  quercetin-3-vetch glycosides              O-vicianose     OH         OH         357
23  quercetin-3-galactosidase glucoside  O-galactose glucose    OH         OH    357
24  quercetin-3-ether                               OMe             OH         OH             357
25  naringenin                                           OH              OH         H               357
26  naringenin                                           OH         O-glucose-rhamnose H 247
27  kaempferol-3-glucoside                       O-glucose        OH         H          360
28  rutin                                                     O-rue sugar        OH         OH    360

As table 3 shows, The UV rays absorption of 28 flavonoids peaks in the long wavelength, and the first 12 flavonoids drift to the medium band of ultraviolet rays; there is no evidence to prove if the other 16 flavonoids have the similiar situation. The data shows part of flavonoids absorbe medium wave UV rays occasionally when absorbing long wave UV rays, or strong in the long wave rays absorption and weak in the medium wave rays absorption. Based on the content of flavonoids in seabuckthorn oils per unit mass, the long wave absoption of pomace oil is the strongest, seed oil the second, pulp oil the third.

2.3 The UV rays absorption wavelength of the other compounds

Seabuckthorn pomace oil and pulp oil contain capsanthin, anthocyanin, vitamin B5, coumarin and vitamin B12. Their UV rays absorption wavelengths are 285nm, 285nm, 291nm, 315nm, 361nm in order, the UV rays absorption wave of the first 4 compounds is in the medium wave while the 5th in the long wavelength. their function of sun protection is ignored as the content is next to nothing.
Above all the test datum, vitamin E, vitamin A, vitamin A source and flavonoids and other active ingredients of sea buckthorn oils can absorbe UV rays in the
long and medium wave, which eliminate or weaken skin acute and chronic UV damages. Therefore, sea buckthorn oils can be used in natural plant-based sunscreen products.

3 The sunscreen mechanism of UV rays absorption ingredients

3.1 The sunscreen mechanism of absorbing medium wave UV rays. The medium wave UV rays can easily cause acute injury of skin, commonly as polymorphic light eruption.
Seabuckthorn oil sunscreen ingredients absorb UV energy in the medium wave, and the mechanism: the oil can stop or slow down the infiltrating by lymph cells
of shadow and deep skin layer caused by medium wave UV rays; eliminate or reduce the edema of dermal papilla layer to prevent flat collagen fiber from becoming three-dimensional grid type due to excessive edema fluid, namely swelling of the erythema type;skin blisters happen when collagen dermal papilla breaks away from epidermal basement membrane due to lower edema fluid . Above all, the UV-induced polymorphic light eruption or other light-induced skin diseases are avoided or alleviated.

3.2 The sunscreen mechanism of absorbing long wave UV rays

Long wave ultraviolet rays are unlikely to cause acute skin injuries. However, because 98% of them can penetrate through glass, clothing and human skin, to reach human dermis,which makes the cumulative damage or even cancer happens, the injuiry is often difficult to cure. Therefore, people need to prevent the damage from long-wave ultraviolet rays to the skin. UV-absorbing components in seabuckthorn oils consume long wave UV energy in bulk, the skin mechanisms are:
3.2.1 to eliminate or weaken the deterrent of collagen regeneration and the photocatalysis of collagen polymerization by long-wave ultraviolet rays, to
eliminate or weaken the long-wavelength ultraviolet rays on the degradation of elastic elements, thus delaying the coarsening, wrinkling, aging of the skin and maintaining skin smoothness, swelling, soft and good feeling.
3.2.2 to eliminate and weaken the low-light catalyst on the formation of oxygen free radicals in skin by long-wave ultraviolet rays, which helps to avoid or
weaken the conversion from reduced melanin (colorless state) to oxidized melanin (skin blackening) and the deposition.
3.2.3 to eliminate or weaken the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids by free radicals on skin cells , to avoid the formation of lipofuscin, delaying the
appearance of facial pigmentation to dilute the stain color.

4 Conclusion
The vitamin E, vitamin A, vitamin A source, flavonoids and other active ingredients in sea buckthorn oils are easily absorbed by the skin, which not only
consume the ultraviolet rays energy in bulk, eliminate or reduce the light-induced skin damages, but also have repair and healing ability on the light-induced skin injuries. They also eliminate a variety of harmful oxygen free radicals during the natural aging process of skin and photocatalytic aging process, which is helpful to delay and reduce the various aging symptoms.

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